Eco and adventure tourism are concepts on the rise in the international tourism industry. Iran is a country with very diverse nature, mountains, lakes, caves, forests, exclusive animal and plant species, various water springs, and much more like the several Islands in the south and shores of the Caspian Sea in the north. All these make Iran a favorite country for those interested in experiencing something new, amazing, and unforgettable.
Ecotourism is a new trend and phenomenon and because of the natural attractions and scenery and untouched areas of the country of iran, is even more important than the concept of tourism. The extensive land of Iran which includes the vast part of the Iranian plateau has provided various climatic conditions as well as different ecosystems and beautiful scenery which offer a unique opportunity for Eco tourists. Considering the rich natural properties of the country, we hereby draw your attention to the following wonderful contrasts existing in Iran: The range of temperature in different parts of Iran differs a great deal, while it is freezing in mountainous areas of north and west it can be very hot in southern areas. Even more interesting is the difference of temperature, at the same time, in two areas close to each other, which provides such conditions that enable people to go skiing on Zagros mountains, then in an hour, go to the southern areas, to the beach of the Persian Gulf for swimming and water skiing.
Sixty-six km to the east of Tehran, to the right of Tehran-Firuz Kuh road, Damavand is a small town set in a closed-off and well-watered valley below the foothills of Mount Damavand whose cone is not visible from this place. During the summer months, its populations are swollen by an influx of holidaymakers. Archaeological excavations carried out in the site of the modern town of Damavand have shown its occupation since the Neolithic times of the fifth millennium BC. The origins of the town go back to the Sasanian period. In the historical districts of the town as well as in its neighboring villages, there remain some relics belonging to the beginning of the Islamic period, the 11th century AD, and the Seljuk period. The most important amongst these is the Jameh Mosque and its minaret, of the same period, however, restored in later periods particularly during the Safavid rule, and thus turned into a new building void of any historical significance. The mosque's circular and simple brick minaret, which rests upon a rectangular brick base, is the only remaining relic of the structure. Traces of a Kufic inscription and of other decorations, in the 11th-century style, remain to this day upon the minaret. At Damavand, there are also two funerary towers of the kind found so abundantly in the Caspian region. The Imamzadeh Shams od-Din, to the southeast of the mosque, is thought to date from the Seljuk period. The Imamzadeh Abdollah, near the northeastern edge of the town, must date from the beginning of the 14th century, although the carved wooden doors are of a later date than the building. Two-barred windows were recently added on the south.
Caspian Sea Beaches
Covering an area of approximately 438,000 square kilometers, it is the world's largest land-locked body of water or lake. Its southern shores belong to Iran. <Hirkany is Khazars ancient name and foreign maps and books also called it the <Caspian>. Its shores are shallow and sandy. The average depth in the northern section is 6 m. and a maximum of 1,000 m. in the south and southwest. One of the most important clefts in the southern parts of the Caspian Sea is the Anzali Wetland, located to the southwest of the Caspian; and the Mian Kaleh Peninsula which is separated from the Caspian Sea by the Qazian and Gorgan Bays. These are amongst the famous attractions of Gilan and the Mazandaran provinces. Its shores cover a distance of more than 6,380 m. of which about 657 m. The calm blue sea forms the northern view, and the dense forests covering the foot of the northern Alborz Mountains forms the southern landscape. The surrounding shores are covered by paddy fields, plantations, and citrus orchards which create wonderful scenery. As far as tourism is concerned, it comprises active and semi-active areas. Parts of the eastern and the central shores are the main areas of tourist attractions. Other parts such as Talesh and the Astara coast are the semi-active areas. Being far from the cities and industrial establishments, the sandy shores and natural landscapes form a healthier environment in comparison to other coastal areas.
It extends to the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea, west of the Sefid Rood delta, and south of the port of Anzali. Rivers, streams, and water from irrigation drain into this wetland, which covers an area of more than 100 square kilometers. Most of the rivers terminating in this wetland take their source in the mountains of Talesh, and after a steep incline end up in the plains. Apart from the economical and environmental aspects, it plays an important role in Gilan's social, geographical, political, and cultural atmosphere. It is also of importance in connection with several scientific backgrounds such as zoology, biology, and environmental studies The wetland displays a spectacular view. Its aqua atmosphere is a suitable bed for the spawning of various types of fish, which play an important role in the economy of the region. This wetland is one of the best and appropriate surroundings for various waterfowls. Hundreds of species of migrant birds choose to settle in this area for breeding
The Anzali wetland and its islands have a beautiful view that attract nature lovers.
The province of Kerman in respect to its relief and natural terrain encompasses elevated plains and vast desert spaces. Some of these such as the plains and summer residing quarters are taken advantage of as recreational areas. The plains of Shahdad, Bam, and Jiroft are low-lying plains and reach a maximum elevation of 2,100 - 1,300 m. The extensive Loot Desert and its salt marshes occupy the major extent of the northeast of the province, salt marshes also form a large section of the northwest of the province The deserts of Iran bear spectacular and interesting features, with a tolerable climate for at least six months of the year. A starlit sky, which is a wonderful and breathless sight, a pregnant silence, panoramic views, mirages, the black, and white sands, and salty earth are some of the characteristics that one can witness only in desert regions. Furthermore, this mystic hold increases in the other facets that the desert upholds. These are the historical vestiges, such as the caravansaries or ancient and traditional inns, palaces, water reservoirs, water conduits, pilgrimage, and religious sites have all amassed in these extensive, mysterious sands revealing the life-style of man in the past.
The forests areas of the province are the natural forests located in the northern fringes which are the continuation of the mountainous forests of the Alborz mountains, the juniper forests on the southern skirts of the Alborz range with tall and dense trees, the desert forests situated in the vicinity of Chah Jam and Khar Tooran with tamarisk trees. Artificial forests come under the category of parks alongside the cities. In addition to which the entrance and exit routes of the province have also been manually planted for about 160 km. The most important parks in Semnan are the Forest Parks of Sookan, Komesh and Mahalat in Semnan, the Forest Parks of Garmsar, Daman, and Shahrood. The major portion of Semnan province is in the desert area. The Kahak Desert, south of Garmsar and the Haj Ali Qoli Desert, south of Damqan can be quoted as good examples worth visiting. Semnan province has such areas, like that of the Khosh Yelaq in the northeast of Shahrood, Parvar to the north of the township of Semnan, and Khar Tooran in the southeast of Shahrood. A special species of the <wild ass> inhabit the region of Khar Tooran. Other species of wildlife noted in Semnan province are, partridge, bustard, grouse, hare, leopard, musk deer, wild sheep, wild goat, ram, gazelle, sable, and Other different flora and fauna species are also scattered in the mountainous, plains and desert regions.
There are about 10000 species of plants, 516 wild birds (almost equal to the number of birds and plant species of the whole of Europe), which undoubtedly draw the attention of every specialist and animal lover. These species include some precious and rare species like Siberian Crane, Falcons, Imperial Eagle, Dalmatian Pelican, and some other spp. mammals have the same importance and attractions so that among the 160 species of mammals, regardless of Asiatic Lion, which used to live in the central parts of Iran, and Caspian Tiger which was extinct not long ago(every now and then there are stories from locals about Caspian tiger still being around), are good indications of Iran's great biodiversity that one can see the Persian Fallow deer which was thought to be extinct, Asian Cheetah which is really in danger of extinction, Persian Wild Ass, Asiatic Black Bear, and tree species of genus Gazelle. Of course, all these animals need more protection to survive. It is also worth noting that the Persian Gulf of Iran is the inhabitants of the biggest mammal in the world (Blue Whale).
The plain of Loot is the largest hollow or pit in the plateau of Iran and a part of which is located between Sistan Va Baluchestan. This plain is one of the hottest and driest in the world with a minimum trace of water. To the west of this plain, is another area of wilderness called Namakzar, which is impenetrable in the rainy seasons. The eastern half of the plain is covered by moving sands, but a part of its southern sector is penetrable. Due to the hot sun and strong winds, heavy masses of sand move to the south and the southeast, forming a chain of sandy hillocks.
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