All about Iran in one frame
Iran with attractive natural and historical sites is rated among the 10 most touristic countries in the world in terms of its history. Tourism attracted 2.3 million people to Iran in 2009. Iran plans to have 20 million tourists annually by 2015.
Country: Islamic Republic of Iran Area: 1648195 sq. km
Population: 80472846 (2015)
Official Religion: Islam
Official Language: Farsi (Persian)
Money Unit: Rial Land and Government
Iran comprises a land area of over 1.6 million square km (the 17th country in the world by land area). It is located in the southwest of Asia and is one of the middle-east countries. Iran lies down the northern temperate zone, between latitudes 25 degrees north and 39 degrees 47 north and between longitude 44 degrees 02 east and 63 degrees 20 east. The Iranian government system is an Islamic republic and its national day is 22th Bahman (24th Nov). Tehran is the capital of Iran Administrative divisions of Iran at the end of 2004 Number of provinces: 32 Number of Cities: 324 Number of Counties: 865 Number of Towns: 982 Number of Dehestans (rural agglomerations).
Iranian official calendar, regulated according to Solar year & Iranian months.21 March, equal 1 Farvardin, is the beginning of Iranian New year. Also in Iran, the Lunar calendar announces officially. The lunar year is 10 days less than the Solar year, so days of performing religious rites, that adjust according to the Lunar calendar, each year is different from the next & former years. Therefore it recommended to tourists that arrange their proper traveling time with related agency. Especially in Ramadan month that Muslim Iranians, are fasting and in Muharram are mournful, so these situations influence on daily & current activities and some days in these two months is a public holiday. Friday is an official holiday.
|All about Iran Visa|
-VISA & Touristic regulation
Iran embassies in other countries oblige to issue a touristic visa for applicants that have a reliable passport, for 48 hours or a maximum of 10 days. Each foreign traveler can carry one piece of personal object that required in a journey, with him/her, such as personalized jewelry, Kodak, video camera or nonprofessional filming camera, field-glass, portable music device, radio & portable tape recorder, first aid kit, tent with related means, sportive & fishing means, scow until 5/5 m length, ski & water skiing devices, racket, books & journals, and similar non-commercial devices that in their arrival, register in traveler's goods cards. Tourists can consign some nonessential or forbidden means, to custom's safe-deposit box, until 4 months. Tourists can enter Iran with their personal vehicles, with the passing licensee (Kame du passage or tripping or what not to do Taking out antique things, handwriting & old books, true cultural works, various old coins, various gold, silver & jewelry (except personal registered jewelry), various painting tableau and other cultural works, is forbidden. Also entering every type of narcotics, alcoholic drinking, weapon & munitions, every type of Aerial photography cameras (identification camera), every type of sender & receiver sets, and also dipstick Wand till the end of their licensee credit can drive in Iran with international certificate. Abroad residents Iranians, that more than 6 continual months, stay in abroad countries, can benefit from this facility. This type of vehicle must have an insurance green card or get a third-person insurance card from Iran central insurance. When Tourists leave Iran, they can, in addition to their personal accessories, take out some items like one carpet or two rugs, maximum until 12 square meters, various handicrafts & Iranian music instruments, books, journals & other Iranian goods that haven't commercial aspect. Take out 3-kilogram Caviar with plumb and purchase bill from airport fisheries store is without impediment. All travelers must be insured by medical & incidents insurance, in one of the Iranian institutes. Every type of book, periodical, multimedia that are the promoter of moral & belief wantonness, is forbidden. For women & tourists that enter Iran, observance of proper clothing & respect to Iranian traditions & socialization rites is necessary. Proper clothing for women out of their residence room is scarf, dress or long Mantua, stock or pants. Photography & filming except, photography forbidden regions (military), is free.
Money, Weight, Scale
The currency of Iranian money is Rial, every 10 Rial, is one Toman. Certainly recommend that for complete financial safety, tourists change their foreign currency to Rial, through the related agency or directly in foreign currency branches of the country's official banks. The value of each foreign currency, such as the American dollar, announced officially through the central bank that it is the scale of exchanging foreign currency to Iranian Rial. Travel expenses regarding Traveler's choice are different, so travelers can receive needed information through the related agency. Weight unity is Kilogram, Ton & length unity is a centimeter, meter, or Kilometer. Liquid unity is a liter or cube meter & area unity is square meter & Hectare. Banks working times are as follow:
- State banks, in normal days: 7.30 AM1.30 P.M & some on-call branches 7.30 AM -4 P.M, Thursdays 7.30 A.M-12 P.M. - Private banks, in normal days: 7.30 A.M-5 P.M, Thursdays, 7.30 A.M, 1 P.M Post & means of Mass communication Almost, Iran postal system extent to remotest regions of the country and each traveler can comminute with farthest world regions by post, telegraph, phone, mobile phone, fax & even internet. Various kinds of newspapers in native languages, Persian, Arabic, English & other language publish daily. Different magazines publish, weekly, monthly & seasonal and various books publish continuously that their information is accessible through computer information bank. Different local, national & international Radio & TV stations always broadcast & telecast programs, in different native languages, Persian & English, and other languages daily or sometimes overnight.
The best way for travelling to Iran is by airplane. Almost, all world flying companies have independent agency offices, in Tehran. In past years, development of country's airports, make possible Arial connection between cities in desirable & wide level. Internal flight ticket price, in comparison to other countries, is relatively cheap. Iran Islamic republic flying, lateral services & duties in internal flights, are according to international standards.
- By ground
Through earthy roads, from Turkey, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armanistan, Pakistan & Afghanistan, can travel to Iran. Main earthy ways that connect to neighborhood countries are as bellow: Iran & Turkey way, in Bazargan boundary in Iran northwest: Zahedan-Mirjaveh way in Iran & Pakistan boundary, Taibad-Harat way in Afghanistan boundary, Astara & Jolfa ways with Azerbaijan and Ghasreshirin-Khosravi way to Iraq. Connective ways between big cities & country's main ways are asphalt & have good quality. Driving in Iran accomplish from the right side & according to international regulations. Many of Iran's roads are mountainous roads and for this reason, have interesting landscapes toward the environment. Center of provinces & big cities, connect to some networks of sideways & main ways to small units.
Iran, through seaways & ports located in Mazandaran sea borders, connects to Northern countries, and with Southern ports in Persian Gulf & OmanSea connect to countries in the Persian Gulf southern coasts and through IndiaOcean connect to the world's free waters. By Railroad In Iran, train services, like all countries of the world, have specific departure programs, that all related information exists in railroad stations. Iran exit stations, are through Sarakhs city in northeast, Jolfa & Razi in northwest & Mirjave in the southeast. Iran's big cities like, Tabriz, Mashhad, Gorgan, Esfahan, Kerman, Yazd, Ahvaz & Khoramshahr are accessible through the railroad. Train ticket price is different noted its grading, distance & train type. Bus The Iranian domestic bus network is extensive and thanks to the low cost of fuel, very cheap. The government has limited buses to 80 km/h. There is little difference between the various bus companies, and most offer two classes: <lux> or <Mercedes> (2nd class) and <super or <Volvo> (1st class). First-class buses are air-conditioned and you will be provided with a small snack during your trip, while second-class services are more frequent. Given the affordability of first-class tickets, there>s little financial incentive to opt for second-class services, especially in summer. You can buy tickets from the bus terminals or ticket offices up to a week in advance, but you shouldn't have a problem finding a seat if you tum up to the terminal an hour or so before your intended departure time. Most cities operate comprehensive local bus services.
-Situation & Nature
Iran country is a wide land, with 1648000 km extent and located in the southwest of Asia, between Torkamanestan, Azerbaijan & Armenia in the north; Afghanistan & Pakistan in the east, and turkey & Iraq in west Persian gulf & Oman sea borders, surround whole Iran's southern boundaries, total land boundaries of Iran, is 5170 km, its total aquatic boundaries in north & South, is 2510 km. Iran located in the heart of the middle east and like a bridge, connect the Mazandaran sea, namely the most beautiful lake in the world, to the Persian Gulf and also, like an intersection in the way of east & west, is the junction of cultural, spiritual & political manifestation of the world of east & west. Lucid springs, pomegranate and pistachio gardens, row of Tabriz's trees, migration of tribe's caravans in different seasons, starry nights, rocks, mountains, unlimited low & high lands, quiet & snowy volcanoes and dense forests of Alborz rage mountain & borders of Mazandaran sea, are among Iran's worth seeing & unforgettable nature landscapes that leave unique memory in the tourists' mind. In different times the view of Iran's plain & moor, is variable, sometimes is full of sand & stone, sometimes is torrential, occasionally covered with snow & mud, or is full of flowers, herbs & grass. One of Iran's important features, that is most important in tourism, is the existence of a very high range of mountains, plains, even moors, desert regions, different rivers & lakes, that cause to seeing one of the four seasons, in every time of year, In the way that in winters in the south's calm sea, aquatic sports like swimming & water skiing and in the same time, in north & west mountains of country winter sports like, ski & mountain climbing is prevalent, and simultaneously in many cities in the Caspian sea borders, people can profit from nice springy weather.
Caspian sea borders, like a very beautiful strip, located between Caspian sea & Alborz range of mountains, that covered by beautiful & dense Jungles. Persian Gulf borders have in some parts, mountainous rocks and in other parts is swampy & sandy, and aren't as monotonous as northern borders. Iran's southern provinces, especially Khuzestan, which is a part of Mesopotamia's vast plain, are very even & flat, and their altitude from sea level is a little. If a tourist roams among Iran's northern or western mountains, he/she can see very beautiful towns, villages, gardens & meadows that make him/her amazed. Iran plateau's high altitude from sea level, and situating all grounds in more than 1000 m altitudes, is another important feature of Iran s land. Alborz's high & vast range of mountains in the north, Zagros mountains in the west, and range of mountains that extend from Khorasan to Baluchestan in the east, have to surround Iran. Iran's most important peaks are as bellow: Damavand in the northeast of Tehran with 5671 m altitude Sabalan in the west with 4880 m altitude, Sahand in the south of Tabriz with 3707 m altitude, Takht Soleyman in center of West Azarbayjan with 4820 altitudes, Zardkuh in Bakhtiyari with 4550 m altitude, Dena in the north of Yasuj with 4309 m altitude, Taftan in the south of Zahedan with 3941 m altitude, and some others peaks that scatter in all over Iran. The diversity & complexity of Calcid constructions, create caves, in different provinces, especially in Azarbaijan, Kurdestan & Hamedan, that noted by many tourists that travel to Iran for visiting these caves. Iran's mountains belong to wrinkles of the third period of geology and some of them with a volcanic origin, cause to Lagunas & spas emersion Iran's mountains create too favorable conditions for winter & mountainous sports. Iran's famous desserts, such as Lut & Kavir plains, spread in more than 360,000 km, and yet considered as interesting unknown areas.
Iran with more than 500 known spas & Lagunas, is one of the most important resources for tourism incomes, that all of them used for supplying drinking water, and hygienic & medical uses Most of these springs located in Alborz, Azarbaijan, and Zagros range of mountains and others are near Esfahan, Mashhad & Bandarabbas. Ardabil's Sareyn spas and Lahijan laguna, in Alborz hillsides and also Mahalat spas, considering, accomplishing considerable actions regarding tourism development in them, attract thousands of people, in summers, for recreation & remedial benefits. Southern borders of the Caspian sea, are regions with jungle-covered hillsides. The altitude of these borders from the free seas level is 28 m. These borders with sandy beaches & landscapes are among the most beautiful & attractive areas of Iran. Borders & islands of Iran's south, enjoy natural & considerable attractions, especially in cold seasons. Hillsides of Alborz & Zagros range of mountains and Iran's rivers bed, are sources of springs & lakes creation & have tourism values.
Iran's plateau climate is relatively dry. Iran located in the world dry climate belt and the Alborz & Zagros range of mountains prevents the entrance of the Caspian sea (Khazari) & Mediterranean humid streams into Iran. because of Iran land's extension between 25 & 40 degrees of latitude, and also the existence of heights, it contains considerable diversity of climates. In Iran, there are 3 climatic regions, in January & February Caspian sea borders with moderate & relatively cold climates; central parts with winter climates, and southern parts with moderate & proper climates. Briefly, the whole north of the country, especially, Alborz foots' countryside regions, like Nour valley, Kajur, Kelardasht, Katalom, and also Azarbaijan, Khorasan & Zagros mountains central regions between Tuysarkan & Golpayeganseems proper places for territorial tourists & also tourists that travel to Iran, in summers. Iran's southern regions, considering its different areas, can be used by insider & outsider tourists, for 5 to 6 months, especially during winter. Outsider tourists that in winters, travel to Iran's southern borders, face with proper weather, whereas, at the same time in Fars & Esfahan, cold, snow & torrent change the face of the cities. In summers, the weather of Iran's most regions is hot, but not so unbearable. Springs & autumns, especially in Noruz holidays, are so proper time for traveling, for outsider & insider tourists.
More than 65% of Iran s population, are from Fars (Pars) race. Fars people are breeds of llami or Ariyayi race, that in second millennium B.C. dwell in middle Plateau and elect Pars (Persia) name for Iran.
The majority of the Ghashghayi tribe, inhabit Fars province. Most of them yet overly migrate from countrysides to wintering places in different seasons of the year. Ghashghayians, like most other racial minorities, is Turk.
Kurds disperse in the large area of Middle East, from east of Turkey (that 10 million Kurds inhabit there) to the northeast of Iraq and some parts in Suriya's boundary to west & northwest of Iran Country Kurds are most antecedent & oldest race in this geographical extent and leastwise, inhabit in these regions from second millennium B.C.
Lors are from the Ariyayi race that mix with Kashi or Kasit ethnic. Along with history, some groups of Arabs & Turks had a racial mixture with Lors, but totally, they are racial remain entire. Lors that constitute 2 % of our country's population mostly inhabit in Lorestan & Kermanshah provinces.
About 4% of Iran's population are Arabs, that many of them live in Khuzestan & Persian Gulf islands. Arab people that live in a south coastal band, and it can see most of Fars characteristics in them, name Bandari. Traditional long clothing of Arab's men, name Thub or Deshdashe name of their head turban is "Gatre". most of Iran's Arabs, yet speak Arabic.
Turkomans that are from Turk ethnics, constitute 2% of Iran's population. This ethnic mostly lives in the Torkaman Sahra region. (a plain located in the east of Mazandaran & north of Khorasan provinces& neighborhood of Turkmenistan Republic).
Azari Turks are Iran's biggest racial minority & constitute 25% of Iran's total population. Although many of them live in East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan & Ardabil provinces, many of them inhabit other provinces of the country.
Remote regions of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiyari and Khuzestan provinces are the residence of most of the Bakhtiyari people. But today, many of them dwell in villages & cities. Baluchians Baluches name in vocabulary means wanderer, they are from Iran's little races that retain their Bedouin lifestyle. Maybe, very dry climate of their residential regions, causes them to continue this lifestyle. Vast & very low population deserts that enclose Iran's southeast extremity & remote regions in the west of Pakistan are natural residential of Baluches. Baluches are great & speedy riders.
-Armenians & Jewish
Armenians & Jewish, live in Iran's different urban regions. Many Armenians habitant Tehran & Esfahan, and famous in technical skills & Commercial talent. Iran's Jewish have 2500 years of archaism and mainly remain in Tehran, Hamadan, Esfahan & Shiraz cities.
From pastimes, Most of Iran's different regions had pastor life & economy, who take their flocks to countryside & wintering place pastures, migrate & live in tents. Tribes Regional dispersion is as follows: -Iran's central tribes, consist of Bakhtiyali tribe, Boyer Ahmad, Doshman Ziyari Cheram, Bavi, Bahmaei, Tayebi, Makran &... Those live in areas of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiyari, Khuzestan, Kohkiluye & Kerman provinces. -Iran's East & Northeast tribes, are different tribes & races that disperse in Khorasan province areas. Iran's tribes along history were subject to continual changes and their name, divisions, placing area, lifestyle, and even their language often changes.
Iran plateau is from the oldest ancient civilization centers in Asia and in this regard has a special place in ancient science. The history of residency in Iran plateau, from Stone age until Aryans migration, isn't so obvious but there are clear documents that Iran land was inhabited from old times. The old dwelling centers come into existence beside springs & rivers or totally next to Alborz & Zagros Mountains. The most important ancient centers are as follows Kashan's Silk hill, Damghan's Hesar hill, Gorgans's Turang hill, Hasanlu hill in Azarbaijan, Marlik hill in Rudbar, and Shush in Khuzestan. In archaeology diggings, in these centers, find some signs that archaism of some of them reach to fifth millennium B.C. migration of Aryan race to Iran plateau began from second millennium B.C. among this race, Parths in Khorasan, Mads in west and Pars settle in the south of Iran. Mads empire establishes in Hegmataneh (Ekbatan) or present Hamadan. Achaemenians after victory over Mads & capturing their capital established Iran's first great empire.
The extent of their realms in Darius the first age (522-485 B.C) was, from Send river plain to Greece boundaries in the west. Takht Jamshid & Pasargad Buildings that are from this age signs, considered as Iran's important ancient signs & tourist attractions and thousands of tourists, visit these signs, each year. After the Achaemenians overthrow and bumping Takht Jamshid by Alexander, his successors' (Sulukians ) dominance on Iran last a short time that its result was a mixture of Iran culture with Helenian culture. About 250 B.C.Parts that were one of the Ariyan's Rider race, march from Khorasan to west & southwest and established their empire in Tisfun on the extent of Iran Plateau. this empire, last until 224 B.C. Sasanians, after victory over the last Parthian king in 225 A.D., establish a new empire, that last until the middle of the seventh century A.D. Iran's ancient age, consider as one of the glorious ages of Iran's history From this age remain many cultural heritages & historical buildings in Takht Jamshid, Pasargad, Shush, Shushtar, Hamadan, Firuz Abad (Naghshe Rostam), Tagh Bostan, Sarvestan & Neyshabur, that so worth visiting. Islam dominance in Iran, in the first half of seventh century A.D, OCcurred after overthrowing of Sasanian empires. After that time, a new age in Iran's history began that create severe fundamental changes in social, political, religious, government & people situations. In spite of the acceptance of Islam, Iranians never conceal their opposition to Omavian & Abbasian caliphs' ascendancy and form many independence movements against Omavian & Abbasian governments' tyranny. So those governments, in order to weaken & repress Iranian, that rise in the bias of the prophet's family & for establishing a government in the base of the pontificate, began to reinforce non-Iranian elements.
Continuance wars of attrition, between local power rulers, weaken these rulers and provide dominant grounds for middle Asia foreign nations, like Saljukian Turks, Mongols & Teymurians. In Safavians age, Iran's second great empire, established and Shitte religion, that its followers, bear a lot of limitation before, became official Shitte religion characteristics & its social & political obligations, preserve Iran's national identity against Osmanians masher slogs and once again Iran could, as trusteeship attorney of Muslims, outbrave as a powerful political-religious force. With Safavians degeneration & fall, Afsharians & Zandians govern. After the Zand government, the Qajar age began, that in this age, the dominance of foreign powers like England & Russia develops in Iran. In this age, social movements, such as the Tobacco movement, Constitutional revolution, Jungle uprising, Sheik Mohammad Khiyabani uprising & ... Occur. In the Pahlavi age, Nationalizing oil industry movement, was underlie 15 Khordad uprising 1342 (1964) solar year& other movements, that finally cause to the victory of the Islamic revolution in 1357 (1979) solar year.
Definition of tradition designing of Iran
Drawing and designing of artificial works in the form of general pattern and symbolic portraits that mixed with abstract resources derived from nature or similar to nature. One of the important principle of Iranian portrait is repetition and symmetry of figures. Portraits related to the traditional designing of Iran include figures before Eslam and figures of the Islamic era. Figures of before Eslam include motifs of creatures and plants that formed based on thoughts and ceremonial understandings. As like as figures of crockery and glazed and glassy shaft like stamps of Elami's era. Numeral figures like golden and silver dishes and lithography of Hakhamaneshi's era. Herbaceous figures of Takhte Jamshid are numerical completely and by using the symmetric method with blue lotus flowers, have covered a wide portion of walls. Figures of the Islamic era include broken figures and versatile figures. Broken figure: angular and numerical figure. Broken figures include patterns that formed by straight lines. These patterns are based on horizontal, vertical, and diagonal lines. Numerical figures include tie figures that 2,3 or 4 plain round tables tied to each other according to the special principles and rules and created beautiful figures. Javad Shafahi has recognized 283 kind ties in the artificial tie-making books. Versatile figures include designs that consist of round lines Eslimi or Eslami is the figure that formed by the spiral motion, it formed like components of the plant and includes seed, stem, bud, leaves, and flower that converted to the sackbut. So, we can say that spiral Eslimi and circuit zigzag that often symmetric or asymmetric, are reminders of the torsion of the plant's stem. However, we must note that torsions of Eslimi's tie follow special rules. This pattern has been known from Saljoghi and Teimori's eras. Kind of Eslimi includes simple Eslimi, broken eslimi, full inside eslimi, empty eslimi, torpedo Mouth eslimi, snake eslimi, proboscis eslimi. Khatai - this pattern consists of bud, flower, and leaves. These figures move among eslimi's figures. Kind of Khatai flowers include Shah Abassi's or euphorbia flower, five wing flower. Potentially, the traditional design of Iran has an independent identity and used for embellishing applicable threads like figures on the earthenware, wood, metal, fabric, carpet, arranging book, brick, and tile, tore, and lithography.
-Religion & Culture
Iran's official religion, according to article 12 Constitution, is Islam & Twelve-Imam Shiite religion. About 99/56% of people are Muslim. In Iran Islamic Republic Constitution, Zoroaster, Christian & Jew religions recognize officially and their followers, with equal rights like Muslims, can participate in country's political, social & economical life. Iran Language, Handwriting, Date origin & Flag According to Iran Islamic Republic Constitution, Iran's official & common language & handwriting is Persian and Islam prophet Hegira is the origin of the country's official date. Farvardin's first day (21 March), is the beginning of the new year in Iran. Accomplishing the country's all official affairs is according Hegira Shamsi date. Iran flag is, green, white & red with Iran Islamic Republic special sign and 22 chart (Allah o Akbar). More than half of Iran people speak in Persian language or related dialects Traditional & national Foods Iranian tablecloth is colorful and this land's food culture is very rich this richness comes from diversity in this country's natural environment. In different regions of Iran, according to available facilities, people prepare different native foods. But in this country, some foods are cooked that because of their generality in all over the country, considered as traditional & national foods. Most famous among them are as below: Chelo kabab (Kebab with rice),
Abgusht (a mixture of sheep meat with cereals, potato & spices), Fesenjan a food with birds meat, especially duck & goose with walnut & pomegranate paste ) Dolme (meaty foods that covered with fresh grape leaf) and different, greenery & Ghayme Khoresh that eaten with rice. In North & west regions of Iran, in addition to Chelo Kabab & Kufte Tabrizi, with some greenery. wild herbs & cereals are cooked different native foods (like Ash Shurba ) with or without meat that have many adherents. Caviar that provided from KhazarSea fishes, has worldly fame and is very tonic food. In North & South of Iran, different foods with fish are cooked. Iran shrimp is among the best seafood products, considering Persian Gulf shrimp, desirability & bigness, delicious food is cooked & offer from it. Iran's Garnele (Labester) has worldly fame. In Iran, Bread is cooked in different ways. Iran has too much bread, with superficial cooking that they are soft & frail. In Iran, bread often eaten freshly. Different types of Iranian bread are as follow Lavash, Taftun, Sangak & Barbari. Iran Traditional & cool drinking is Doogh (yogurt & water), that with some spicy greenery, that is drunk with food.
Iranian Dialects In historical documents
In Islamic historians & geographers works, besides Dari Persian that was the country's official & administrative language, southern Pahlavi (Parsik) until 3 or 4 century after Islam, considered as Iranians religious language for Iranians that remain in the Zoroastrian religion, in addition, pointed to some other dialects that were prevalent, in different regions of this vast land and sometimes long & short examples of those is registered. These books, that is written in the late third to tenth Hegira century, point to more than 40 Iranian dialects, that their lists are as follow:
It was Aran & Bordee dialect in Caucasia, that Estakhri & Moghadasi state. Moghadasi writes about it: "In Aran speak with it, and their Persian is understandable and it's alphabet is resemble Khorasani".
Hamdollah Mostofi write that:"Tuman of Maraghe is 4 cities: Maraghe, Yasvi, Kharghan & Leylan... it's people are white face & like Turks...and their language is Moghir Pahlavi." In another version, it registers as "Moarab Pahlavi" and maybe Moarab is Maghreb Tashif namely the western Pahlavi dialect. Because after Islam, in most of writers works, all native dialects that were different from Dari Persian, in generic word, named, Pahlavi or Fahlavi.
-Hamadani & Zanjani
Moghadasi just records two words, about the dialect of this region: "Vatem" & "Vatova Shams gheys Razi, said a couplet in speaking of Fahlaviyat meter and consider it from language of "Zangan & Hamadan people Hamdollah Mostofi wrote about Zanjan People: their language is Rast Pahlavi.
Yaghut Hamavi, wrote Macaronic ode, from a Kurdish poet, name Anushiravan Baghdadi, that titled "Iraq Satan" in his book.
Khuzestan people dialect, that in Hamze Esfahani & Ebn Alnadim narratives, pointed as prevalent languages in Sasanian Iran. Estakhri wrote about this region's dialect:"majority of them, speak Persian & Arabic, in addition they have a language that isn't Ebrani or Seryani or Persian." Maybe his purpose was Iranian dialect of that land. Moghadasi also said something about Khuzestan people dialect that maybe related in prevalent Persian in Khuzestan, not especial native dialect.
Estakhri writes about this area: "they have a unique language other than Persian & Arabic and Moghadasi said: "Deylam area's language is different & difficult.
-Gili Or Gilaki
apparently was a separate dialect from Deylami. Estakhri writes: 'in some parts of Gilan (Jil), as I knew there is a tribe that, their language is different from Jil & Deylam region." And Moghadasi says Gilakan, use Kha (or Ha) letter.
-Tabari or Mazandarani
This dialect has considerable literature. We know that Marzban Name" book, was written in Tabari dialect and translate from that language to Dari Persian.Ebn Esfandiar point in "Niki Name "Poem bureau in Tabari language & give it to Espahbod Marzban ebn Rostam Ebn Shervin, writer of "Marzban Name". in "Ghabus Name" record two verses with Tabari language from the writer. Ebn Esfandiyar mentions some poets, that write poems in the Tabari dialect and he writes some of their poems. In "Tarikh Ruyan", Oliyaallah Amoli, said about some verses from Mazandarani poets, that record in Tabari dialect. Recently, some manuscripts of Arab literature translation, & also some versions of Quran translation & paraphrase found in Tabari dialect, that from them it can understand, Tabari Dialect, have wide literature in first centuries after Islam. Collection of Tabari couplets, that known as "Amir give it to a poet named "Amir Pazvani" , exist in Mazandaran, that "Bernhard Dern Russian Orientalist, find their versions, and publish them in Sent Petersburg, with "Kanzolasrar" name, and Persian translation. Moghadasi writes that the Tabarestan language is near Ghoms & Jorjan areas, except its snap.
Hamdollah Mostofi write about this region's people in Caucasia, beside Khazar Sea, between Aras & Kor Rivers)" their language is Pahlavi & to Jeylani Baz Baste
-Ghomes & Jorjan
(Gorgan) Moghadasi about these two regions' language writes: "their language is a little similar to each other, and there is "Hade" & " Haken" & sweetness in it.
Moghadasi about Eghlim Aljebal habitants write: "they have different languages.but in Rey, use "Ra" letter. They said: Rade & Rakon. There is information, about Razi language in another writings. A poet with name of "Bendar Razi", have poems, in language of this city people, that some verses of it record in Almajam.
Moghadasi, about this region's people language points that, they have a language that isn't understandable.
Estakhri write about one of 3 standard language in Fars provinces: "their spoken language is Farsi, and all Fars people speak with one language, that everybody understands it, except some words that is different and others can't understand it".
- Fahlavi or Pahlavi
According to Estakhri writing: Ajam writing language - apparently non Muslim Iranian - and letter writing & recording of Zoroastrians with each other was in Pahlavi language that for all understanding, needed to interpretation." and thought that, his purpose was as same as that language that about late third & forth Hegira centuries, published some books, like Dinkard & Pandahesh.
Moghadasi write that this area's people language is understandable and is near Khorasani. Estakhri said that, language of Kerman people is very Farsi language.
According to Estakhri writing, the language of Makran people, was Farsi & Makri. Moghadasi write that, Makran's people language is Vahshi Makran.
Estakhri write that,Baluchs & Barezians have another language except Farsi.
-Kuchi or Ghafsi
Ghafs or kuch tribe, that its name in resources come with Baluches, according Estakhri writing, had another language except Farsi, that name "Ghafsi". Moghadasi write about "Kuch & Baluch" tribes: "their language is obscure, and look like Sandi.
According to Moghadasi writing, Neyshabour people language was fluent & understandable, but they say 'e' vowel in beginning of the words in addition " Ya", like "Beygu", "Beysho" and useless "sin" (for some verbs), like: "Bekhradasti", Begoftastes", "Bekhoftasti and so on.
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